Microbiology of Coronaviruses
COVID 19 – Corona Virus – SARS-CoV-2 is a Positive sense, single-strand enveloped RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae.
Coronavirus name derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown. Viral envelope under electron microscopy appears crown-like due to small bulbar projections formed by the viral spike (S) peplomers.
COVID 19 – Corona Virus – SARS-CoV-2 being an “enveloped” virus is enclosed in a fat-like substance, called a lipid membrane, the virus uses this membrane or envelope to attach itself to a host cell.
The host cell is then penetrated by the coronavirus, which replicates in the host cell. The membrane/envelope is somewhat vulnerable to changes in pH levels, disinfectants and temperature.
Coronavirus is weak when outside the human body, and can simply be destroyed with disinfectant and hot water, once the virus penetrates the body it cannot be killed as easily.
Various agents are effective against coronavirus, alcohol is probably the best known, it works very quickly but has little residual effect. Common household bleach is another, however, this is impractical and dangerous to use.
QATs or quaternary ammonium compounds are slower acting but provide longer-lasting protection against the coronavirus. They are best applied in a mist and left on the surface to destroy the virus.
They destroy the virus by disrupting the envelope membrane, which exposes the nucleocapsid, affecting its ability to infect other cells.
COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease-2019) is the disease, SARS-CoV-2 is the virus.